Wednesday, October 28, 2009

Detroit Motor News


DETROIT, Oct. 24—Anticipating the time when arial navigation will to some extent supplant the means of travel now in vogue, the Detroit & Cleveland Aerial Navigation Co., of Detroit, has been incorporated, with a nominal capital stock of $50,000. The new organization, which by the way, so far as can be learned, is the first company to be chartered for carrying passengers through the air, is made up of stockholders in
the Detroit & Cleveland Navigation Co., and is much more farreaching than the name would indicate. The company operates side-wheel passenger fleets between Detroit, Cleveland, Buffalo and Mackinac and it is the intention as soon as aerial navigation has been rendered practical to supplement this service with a full line of airships for the accommodation of those desirous of traveling in that manner.

"We will not do any experimenting," says Vice-President and General Manager A. A. Schantz. "Our business is purely transporting passengers and freight. The minute airships become sufficiently practical we will add service of this nature. The capital stock mentioned in our articles of incorporation is merely nominal, and will be increased when the occasion requires. Personally I believe it will be a long time before any man succeeds in crossing the ocean in an airship of any sort. But with the rapid advancement in the development of aeroplanes there is no reason that I can see why tlights of two or three hundred miles should not be common within a few years, at the most. When that time arrives we want to be prepared for it."

Details have been completed for the taking over of the Owen Motor Car Company, of this city, by the Reo Company, of Lansing, as announced in The Horseless Age. Holders of Owen stock will receive stock in the Reo Company on an equitable basis, and some of the Owen officers will be given executive positions in Lansing. All the equipment and stock in the Detroit plant is being removed to Lansing, and the Reo will be managed on a more comprehensive scale than the rather limited manner in which affairs had been conducted since its organization.

The Ford Motor Company is to invade New York in a manufacturing way, announcement being made of the purchase of a tract of land at Jackson and Honeywell avenues, Long Island City, upon which a four-story concrete structure, 75 x 265 feet will be erected. This building will be equipped with every manufacturing facility, and will be at the disposal of dealers and subdealers in the vicinity of New York who handle Ford cars, and their customers. There will also be a fine display room and convention hall for branch managers of the Atlantic seaboard. It is the intention to have this factory ready for business by the middle of March.

Subscribers who are filling to act as
Local Subscription Agents 
for The Horseless Age, on a commission basis, are requested to communicate with the Editor

Thursday, October 15, 2009


Carrying extra tires inflated and ready to run, a new demountable rim has been
developed by the Diamond Rubber Company, of Akron. O. The rim has just
been placed on the market and will have a conspicuous place in the Diamond
products for 1910. In design and construction it is both simple and strong
and permits the removal of the damaged tire with the application of a fresh one,
pumped up and ready for running, in scarcely more time than is required to
jack up the wheel.

A notable improvement over the Diamond 1909 demountable equipment is the
fact that the rim can be fitted to any automobile wheel felloe of regulation
construction without material alteration of the same. No machine work is necessary
on the wheel band or elsewhere and any competent blacksmith can, the
Diamond Rubber Company states, do the job properly and inexpensively. A
further improvement eliminates the necessity of mortising out the felloe to
admit the valve stem of the inner tube. A series of wedges fitting between the
wheel band and the rim itself take up all possible play and make the fit tight
and secure. For the same reason small irregularities, due to dinging of rim or
band or other causes, cannot interfere with the rim's quick and easy operation.

The new Diamond demountable will accommodate any standard make of
regular clincher tire. The Diamond Company has spent much time and energy
in developing and testing this new product and the vigor with which the
rim is being pushed is plainly indicative of the company's own confidence therein.

Wednesday, October 14, 2009


The gasoline automobile is fast coming to the front, and with a few objectionable
features removed, will be a great boon to the traveling public. The present objections
to most machines of that order are the noise, the smell and the vibrations.
They are among the handiest, in other respects, for physicians, as they do not require
as much attention as do steam machines; but when they get out of
order, especially far from "home and mother," they are about as mysterious as
boarding house hash. It takes an expert to find out the difficulty, and even he is
often unequal to the task. They are often lugged home by the noble hay motor, with
the once haughty chauffeur perched on his lofty seat with one hand on the steering
handle and the other gently spread over his humiliated features.

When, after careful instruction and practical demonstration, I first began to run an
automobile alone I felt as timid and nervous as a young colt before a screeching locomotive,
but as time wore on and experience ripened, I found pleasure in my daily
rides, and now, after an extended experience, I feel safer in it than I would behind
a well fed horse.

The steam machine has some advantages above all others, as it runs more
smoothly, is noiseless and free from odor and vibration. It is also a great hill
climber. The power can be nicely graduated, and the sensation when riding is
more pleasant than in any vehicle yet made.

Thursday, October 8, 2009


INDIANAPOLIS, IND., Oct. 4—When the summary had been figured out in
the first annual amateur sociability run last night, it was found the event had
been won by a woman. The winner was Miss Katrina Fertig, who came within 63
seconds of the secret schedule arranged for cars of class B, costing from $2,001 to
$3,000. Miss Fertig a year ago was one of the few drivers making a perfect score
in the reliability run to French Lick Springs and return. The run, which took
the place of the annual reliability run, was exclusively for private owners and
their drivers. There were no penalties and practically no rules, except that a professional
driver must have been in the employ of his employer for at least 30 days
before the run. None of the contestants knew the schedule upon which they were
supposed to run. There were four classes, and Robert B. Kramer, of Attica, arranged
a schedule for each class. This was kept  sealed until after all of the cars had returned
to this city, and there was much surprise, when it was found a woman had
won. Almost ideal weather and road conditions prevailed.

The run was to Mudlavia Springs and return, a pretty little resort in northern
Indiana, 5 miles from Attica. The outbound route was 83 miles long, going
through Crawfordsville, New Richmond. Newton and Attica. Returning, the route
was 104 miles, through Lafayette and Lebanon. There were four classes of entries,
as follows: Class A, cars selling $3,001 and over; class B, cars selling $2,001
to $3,000; class C, cars selling $1,001 to $2,000, and class D, cars selling at $1,000
and under. The running time for the different classes was: Class A, going
3:38:09, returning 4:54:21, total 8:32:30; class B, going 3:58:24, returning 5:19:09,
total, 9:17:33; class C, going 4:23:35, returning 5:38:42, total 10:02:17; class D,
going 4:50:03, returning 6:02:11, total 10:52:14. The results:

Car and Entrant         Time
Packard 30, H. A. Archev 8 :25 :30
Packard IS, P. L. Wiltshire 8 :16 :30
Stoddard-Dayton. Carl G. Fisher.     Withdrawn
Locomobile, L. M. Wainwright 9 :14 :20
Stearns, J. T. Alfree        Withdrawn
Packard 18, W. A. Atkins 7 :31:03

Premier, George A. Weidley 9 :56 :30
Premier, Miss Katrina Fertig 9 :16 :30
Knox, E. H. Wilson        Withdrawn
Premier, H. E. Stafford         9 :07 :00
Premier, L. W. Cooper        10 :12 :13
Premier, Bert A. Boyd 9 :59 :05
Premier, Miss Elizabeth Love 9 :43 :00
Premier, Mrs. Frank Schussler 9 :38 :30

CLASS C—SCHEDULE, 10 :02 :17
S-M-F, ,T. Rotbart         9 :01 :30
Overland, John A. George Withdrawn
E-M-F, H. H. Hauger Withdrawn
Oakland, Herbert Herff         Withdrawn
E-M-F, Joseph T. Elliott         8 :48 :32

CLASS D—SCHEDULE, 10 :52 :14
Maxwell, John Hayden 9 :32 :00
Hupmobile, F. I. Willis 10 :35 :30
Empire, Paul Smith         Official car

The prize was awarded to the driver of any class keeping closest to the schedule
in his class. The prize was a silver trophy donated by the Warner Instrument Co.,
which is to be contested for each year, unless one person can hold it 3 years in
succession, in which event he is to retain possession of the trophy. There were a
number of accidents, but fortunately none of them was serious. On Saturday the
Stoddard-Dayton confetti car No. 13, driven by Barrett Saltzgaber, ran into a
ditch between Crawfordsville and New Richmond and was wrecked. Mr.
Saltzgaber was only slightly injured and the Packard car, driven by H. A. Archer,
picked up the crew of the confetti car and carried it into Mudlavia.

Immediately after arriving at Mudlavia. dinner was served at the hotel at the resort.
This was followed by a hill-climb on the Devil's Elbow hill, which is about
1,030 feet long and ranges from a 9 to a 15 per cent grade. At the expense of Mr.
Kramer, of Attica, the hill was graded and the turns banked, and a timing device
was furnished by H. J. Sconce, of Sidell, Ill. Cars of each class participated in the
hill-climb. The winners of the various classes then entered a handicap climb, the
winner of this receiving a silver cup. The event was won by Carl G. Fisher, driving
a Stoddard-Dayton. The following is a summary of the hill climb:

Car and Driver                          Time
Stoddard-Dayton, Carl G. Fisher :20
Stearns, J. T. Alfree                 :22 1-2
Locomobile, L. M. Wainwright :27 1-4

Knox, E. H. Wilson                 :22 3-4
Premier, Miss K. Fertig                 :27 1-4
Premier, Mrs. F. Schussler         :35 1-4

Buick, Dr. P. H. Keys         :25 1-2
Oakland, Herbert Herff                 :25 3-4

Maxwell, John Hayden         :28 3-4
Hupmobile, F. I. Willis         :43 1-2

Car, Handicap, Driver         Time

Stoddard-Dayton, scratch, Fisher :19 3-5
Buick, :05 1-2, Keys         :28 3-5
Knox, :02 3-4, Wilson         :23 4-5
Maxwell, :08 3-4, Hayden         :30

Wednesday, October 7, 2009


Vol. 13, No. 10

Babbitt Bearings.
I note on page 665, issue of December 30, 1903, an article on "White Metal Bearings,"
by J. S. V. Bickford. He says it "hardly ever requires adjusting." My experience
is that it does need adjusting, but perhaps not so often as some other materials,
and constant adjusting where there is much duty. A bearing that could not
be adjusted would certainly be a failure on any well made machine. His assertion "All
you have to do is to wrap the bearing in asbestos twine, rubbed with lamp clay, and
warm it up until the metal runs, when you have a bearing as good as new," is certainly
a new one to me, and I would like to have Mr. Bickford explain the seemingly simple
operation more fully. When we have a babbitt bearing that is too bad to fill and
scrape to a fit we have to remove all babbit and repour.

Mr. Bickford says "this joint is used in Pratt & Whitney lathe head stocks, etc.,"
but my information is to the effect that it is poured, well hammered or rolled in the
boxes and then bored the same as any other bearing. I have never been able to pour
babbitt that would be tight in the boxes after it cooled, although the boxes were
heated before pouring, and I can vouch for the tightness of the babbitt in the Pratt &
Whitney head stock.

Gyrostatic Action.
I was interested in the editorial in your issue of March 2 on the gyrostatic action
of the flywheel as related to the strength of parts in an automobile, as I have been
working in that line for some time. I do not think that Mr. Ward has as yet presented
the matter in all its aspects. There is no doubt but that the flywheel very
strongly resists a force tending to change its plane of rotation under some circumstances,
but there is also another effect that I think must be taken into account.
When a force is exerted tending to change the plane of rotation, there is a strong
force created thereby at right angles to the first named force, and the parts should
be designed to resist this latter force. The parts may, I think, be so constructed that
there will be no gyrostatic resistance to the first named force, but they cannot be so
constructed that the latter shall not be exerted.

Professor Perry in his "Spinning Tops" (I think) observes that some locomotives
are not so fast as others of the same power, and he seems to attribute this to
such inertia effects, and Mr. Clough in a recent article remarks that the heavy
automobiles frequently take as little power to drive them at a certain speed as
do the light runabouts. It is quite possible that this may be due to the same or
related causes.

I have examined a number of works on mechanics with the hope of finding an
accessible treatment of the subject. The problem seems, however, to be
 treated from a theoretical standpoint, as investigating the very remarkable action of the
gyrostat in the familiar form of a toy, and is either too involved, mathematically, for
ready comprehension, or is not adapted to practical engineering conditions. For instance,
the mathematical expression for the time of nutation of the toy is curious, but
I do not at present see its practical application in automobile engineering.

I have worked out a formula which is sufficiently simple and rational in its derivation,
and have submitted it to some expert mathematicians, who have not as yet
found any error in it. I have designed an apparatus for experimental investigation of
the subject, and hope to have it constructed soon. I hope by this to prove my reasoning
either right or wrong.

Roller Bearings for Qasoline Engines.
Can you tell me whether roller bearings are practical for crank shaft bearings of
two or four cycle gasoline motors or not? I am not sure whether the impulse of explosion
would tend to crack the rollers or not.

[Undoubtedly roller bearings could be made to withstand the shock of explosion
in an engine, but they are not used by any of the well known automobile and engine
builders, probably because they would need to be considerably larger in size than
plain bearings.—ED.]

Gas Engine Oils.
Kindly advise me in your next issue what a first class oil should consist of for a water
cooled motor. Should it be the product of a straight crude petroleum or should
it be of the material of a high grade cylinder oil, which I believe has more or less
fatty matter in it?

Kindly advise me who, in your opinion, makes the highest grade motor oil.

[Gas engine oil differs from the ordinary steam engine cylinder oil in that it is
wholly, or almost wholly, of mineral origin—a product of crude petroleum—whereas
the so called "cylinder oil" is largely composed of animal matter. The gas engine
oil is much thinner, has a higher fire test and does not soot the internal working
parts in the same degree as "cylinder oil" would. The gas engine oil is specially
adapted for cylinder lubrication, and should be used in the crank case if splash lubrication
alone is depended upon for oiling the cylinder. It may also be employed for all
of the bearings if it is considered an advantage to use only a single grade of oil.
Otherwise ordinary machine oil is very satisfactory for bearings. We cannot inform
you who makes the highest grade of cylinder oil.—ED.]

Explosion Engine Queries.
What should be the size of inlet and exhaust valves, also diameter and weight of
rim of flywheel, for a 5x6 inch cylinder gasoline engine, running from 700 to 750
revolutions per minute, compression 60 pounds gauge? Also, if possible, please
give formula for calculating the same.

[A clear diameter of 1¾ inches will be sufficient for both the inlet and the exhaust
valve. It is usual to make the clear diameter of the valves about one-third the diameter
of the cylinder. A proper size for the flywheel would be 22 inches in diameter,
with a rim section 2 inches deep by 2½ inches wide. Such a flywheel would
weigh a little over 100 pounds. A considerable range in the weight of the flywheel
is allowable, as a larger flywheel than that specified above would allow the engine to
run at a lower minimum speed under full load and would prevent it from being pulled
down in speed so much when short, heavy obstructions are encountered.—ED.]

The writer would like to have your opinion on a two cylinder opposed motor. We
now have a single cylinder engine 5x6 inches, which develops fully 7 horse power.
We should like to know, if we hitch two of these cylinders together on an opposed
type, what horse power we would obtain. Should it give 14, more or less?

[A two cylinder engine should give approximately twice the power as a single
cylinder of the same cylinder dimensions. It might give even slightly more than
double the power, as the friction on the crank shaft and cam gear will most likely
not be twice as great as in the single cylinder machine, but, on the other hand, it
is somewhat difficult to perfectly attune the two cylinders so that each shall give its
maximum power at the same spark setting, which would probably counterbalance the
above advantage.—ED.]


The grievances of British motorists are to be tabulated by the Motor Union, says
the Daily Mail, and Parliamentary candidates will be asked for their opinions

In an article by Claude Johnson in the Badminton Magazine on "The Magnificent
Mercedes, the Rich Man's Motor Car," the tire cost per mile is estimated at 19.5
cents, or $975 for 5,000 miles, and the rest of the annual expense on the basis of
15,000 miles running is given as $3,375. including $1,000 for the hire of a driver.

Tuesday, October 6, 2009



The Hydrocarbon Engine as a Source of Energy, by ELWOOD HAYNES.
General Deductions, by HENRY W. STRUSS.
The Gasoline Engine Indicator Diagram, by E. C. OLIVER.
Vaporizers and Carbureters, by HERBERT L. TOWLE.
Ignition and Ignition Troubles, by P. M. HELDT.
Coils and Sparks, by E. J. STODDARD.
The Vibration of Explosive Motors, by HERBERT L. TOWLE.
Gasoline and Gasoline Mixtures, by E. J. STODDARD.
Multi-Cylinder Engines, by P. M. HELDT.
Gasoline Vaporizers and Carbureters, by HENRY W. STRUSS.
Balancing a Motor Carriage, by E. C. OLIVER.
Explosive Motor Data, by R. I. CLEGG.
An Explosive Motor in Detail, by R. I. CLEGG.

72 pp. PRICE, 1O CENTS, Stamps or Coin.
The Horseless Age,

Monday, October 5, 2009


The evenin' chores wuz done an' I wuz settin' with my pipe,
A lookin' at the grapevines where the fruit wuz gettin' ripe,
An' a-listenin' to the hired han's discussin' uv the craps,
When who shud come a-ridin' up but tew swell city chaps
In one of them thar hossless things I'd heerd tell uv before,
But never 'lowed I'd live tew to see a-standin' by my door.

The feller who wuz runnin' it spuk up, jest reel perlite,
"Ef ye'll let us fill our biler here we'll pay ye what is right."
Says I, "I like to 'commodate, but water's gittin' skeerce
An' when the cistern's clean, plum dry the women folks is fierce,
But," says I, "I'll risk their jawin' fur a ride in that affair."
It costs ye fifty cents in York, they say, tew ride a square,
An' bein' as the water comes so free-like from the sky,
I 'lowed ef they shud take me up 'twould be a payin' high.

The feller laffed a leetle, an' says he, "It's gittin' late,
But water we hev got tew hev, so we'll accommodate";
An' while they fed an' iled her up I called the women tew,
Fur they'r ez anxious ez the men fur seein' things 'ats new.
It looked sum like a buggy, 'cept the shafts wuz out uv sight
An' thar wuz bars an' chains an' things 'at didn't seem jest right;
The handle uv it wuz turned back, an' I'll declar, by jocks!
The wheels wuz made of leetle rods an' rubber hard as rocks.

Tew things resemblin' toy clocks fust caught the women's eye,
An' a lookin' glass hung on the dash—I spose tew clean up by,
Fur no mistake about it, them tew chaps wuz mighty neat ,
An' kep' some water hangin' in a bottle by the seat.
But the outside warn't a sarcumstance, tho' interestin' enuff,
Tew the mystery uv the innards where they stored the engin' stuff;
But I didn't hev no time at all tew steddy out each part,
Fur the man 'at run the circus hed got ready now tew start.

An' when I clum intew the thing an' sot down by his side,
I bet I warn't a bit more skeered when I led out my bride;
But proud an' happy tew! my heart kep' swellin' in my chest
Till I felt sure I'd hev tew bust or open up my vest;
At fust the blamed thing started off so creepy like an' slow,
The hired man yelled out "Git ep" an' then he let 'er go!
We turned the corner by the gate so quick we near upsot,
An' past the medders an' the woods like cannon ball we shot.

I never spuk a single word—jest held on like grim death—
The wind wuz zippin' past us so it kind a-tuk my breath;
The neighbors all cum runnin' out as curious as cud be,
An' I bet ever' livin' soul wuz envyin' uv me.
We made the dust an' pebbles fly—an' barn yard critters tew—
An' hosses stood an' pawed the air when our rig hove in view;
But he'd tech somethin' with his foot an' stop 'er like a flash—
The fust time I warn't lookin' an' fell over on the dash.

But I enjoyed thet ride more—I'm sartin' thet I did—
Than any gorgeous street parade I'd went tew when a kid;
A ridin' after hosses now jest makes me fairly sick,
An' flyin's mighty pleasant, ef ye never stop tew quick.
But uv all the ways uv gittin' 'round thet ever I did see
That takes the cake! A hossless rig is good enuff fur me!


Sunday, October 4, 2009


Le Pontois' Electro-Magnetic Speed Changing Gear.

The speed changing gear with magnetic clutches, invented by Dr. Leon Le Pontois
and which was exhibited on a car at last year's Madison Square Garden Show, is
stated to have now been reduced to a thoroughly practical state, and will probably
soon be available in the market. The gear, of which a cross sectional view is shown
herewith, combines the planetary and lathe back gear principles, and all speed variations
are secured by magnetic friction clutches running in oil. The gear gives
three forward speeds and one reverse (direct drive on the high gear), and is very
compactly housed in an extension of the engine crank case. The engine flywheel
forms part of the gear, and it is stated that the gear for a double cylinder vertical 20
horse power engine weighs 300 pounds.

The flywheel A is mounted on the end of the shaft O, and constitutes a triple
magnetic field. It has annular grooves B, C and D cut in its surfaces, in which
are located coils enclosed in copper shells, hermetically sealed, protecting the winding
and its insulation from the action of the oil, and constituting at the same time a
damping circuit, shielding the coils from the field discharge. When these coils are
energized by an electric current a magnetic field is formed in the mass of the flywheel
which attracts and holds firmly the armature disks I, J or K. The current is sent
through these coils by means of wires leading to contact rings W, and by brushes X
to the source of electrical energy.

Annular fields E and G are held fast in the casing. A shaft M with bearings in the
shaft O and in the driven shaft N supports the armature disks and the gears. A disk
L keyed on the shaft M supports a shaft V carrying the pinions Q, S and U. A
gear P meshing with pinion Q is locked on the driven shaft N. A sleeve carries
the gear R and the armature disk J, gearR being in mesh with gear S. A second
sleeve carries the armature disk K and gear T, which meshes with gear V. The shaft
M also supports the armature disk I keyed on it.

When it is desired to run at a slow forward speed the disk L carrying the shaft V
is made stationary by being attracted and held fast by magnetic field G energized by
coil H. The pinion R is made to rotate with the shaft O by the armature J held
against the flywheel by coil C. The pinion R then drives the shaft V and shaft N
through the intermediary of gears S, Q and P at a low rate of speed.

To obtain the second speed, while disk L is held stationary, armature J is released
and current is sent through coils D. Disk K then turns solid with the flywheel, and
gear T drives shaft N through the intermediary of the gears V, Q and P.

Now let it be desired to engage the high speed. Clutch D is still magnetized. Disk
L is released from the grip of clutch G and disk I is attracted by clutch B. The whole
system of gears now rotates solid with the shaft, the whole mass forming a heavy flywheel.

To reverse, disk K is made fast to clutch E by coil F being energized; at the same
time disk I is made fast on the flywheel by coil B being energized. The disk L carrying
the secondary shaft V rotates with shaft O. The epicycloidal path described by gear
S being different from the path described by gear Q, the gear P rotates slowly in the
opposite direction to shaft M and thus the reverse motion is obtained.

Only six gears enter into play in these successive operations.

An oil pump driven by shaft N forces oil under pressure through the bearings of the
shaft M and bushings rotating on that shaft. This oil forms a thin film between the clutch
surfaces and the armature disks, which plays a very important part in the progressive
clutching and releasing of the disks when the field magnets are energized.

A simple generator, designed to deliver a constant current at whatever speed the engine
is driven, is used for operating the clutches up to 15 horse power. This generator
is of the ironclad type. A foot pedal, placed in series with the electric switch controlling
the fields, acts directly on an inductive rheostat, or choke coil, to enable the
operator to start the car with ease. The clutches are interlocking; that is, it is impossible
to engage two at the same time.

Tests are said to have shown that the energy required to magnetize the fields
amounts to somewhat less than half of 1 per cent, of the power transmitted. A
working model of the gear is shown at the office of the company owning the patents on
it, 200 Broadway, New York.

Saturday, October 3, 2009

COMMUNICATIONS: Tire Life and the Speed Craze.

Tire Life and the Speed Craze.
In reply to W. Mason's letter in your paper of the 10th, I want to say that I
have a steam dos-a-dos which I ran a good many hundred miles with two grown
people and four children all over Western Massachusetts last summer, the second
year it has been run, and the repairs on the machine would not come to $10. Not
one breakdown occurred. What money was expended was mostly for extras or
improvements. I burned kerosene all summer, and once put in some oil out of
a dirty can without a strainer on it, and had to clean the burner, and in so doing
broke vaporizer while hot and had to get it fixed, at an expense of $3.

I will admit I spent a few dollars on a new kerosene burner which I was experimenting
with, but this was done for fun and had nothing to do with the carriage.

I paid 50 cents to get a 2 inch pipe cut in a repair station, and $2.40 to get my air
pump fitted in another place. Aside from a tire I got just before cold
weather set in for $5, my other one was good for another season, until in the dark
I ran onto a lot of sharp stone that the city had put in a hole in the road without
covering, and cut it so it was beyond repair.

My other tires (single tube pneumatic) have been run ever since early in the
spring of 1902, and not one puncture or one cent has been spent on them.

I had an early steam runabout before this which I ran any way over 4,000 miles
before a cent was spent on the tires (same make); then the two back tires required
new casing, although they never punctured. The fronts were running finely the
last I heard of the carriage.

But for the speed craze tires would last longer. No man can ride with pleasure
over any road at more than 15 miles an hour. I will never buy a car of a maker
who keeps a racer on the track, for I think such things are carried too far. If it
were not for the new law in our State it would be unsafe for a party wishing to
run an automobile for pleasure to go on the roads today, the way things are tending.

Should Amateurs Try to Improve Their Machines ?
Here is my experience:

Last year I got the auto fever. I decided to get a second hand one of a good
make to learn with. I bought a 1900 gasoline phaeton. I knew nothing about the
principle of a gasoline engine; inlet valves, exhaust valves, etc., were all a mystery
to me.

My experience in studying out all these things would require a book of 500 pages
to relate. I had lots of trouble, but when I studied out the matter always found the
fault was mine, excepting two improve ments that I added.

I found that when I had a heavy strain on the chain it would pull up tight as a
drum and I would then have to loosen up half a dozen bolts and hammer the frame
around that holds the rear sprocket. I noted the frame had a large bolt attached
to it, one end of which ran through the back frame with a nut on, thus preventing
the chain from becoming loose. I saw by putting a set nut on the other side
of this frame I could hold the chain just where it was set. Result, no more trouble
with it.

Improvement No. 2 was to fasten nuts to prevent them from becoming loose.
The frame being of wood, I quickly planned out this arrangement. I took a piece of
heavy strap iron, about ¾ inch wide and 1 inch long, drilled a screw hole through
one end, set it against the nut, sent the screw into the wood, and there it has
stayed. This is as simple as A B C and does the trick.

I do all this work myself. It does me lots of good to occasionally spend a
couple of hours after supper with overalls on working on the old machine, for it gives
me a change of work and exercise which I need.

I can make the machine run and have had many pleasant trips with it.

The Right of Touring.
I write for information regarding the right of touring through the States of
Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts and New Jersey, and as far as Washington.

My auto is registered in New York State; do I require any other permit beyond
my driver's license and the registration?

[A New York license will be honored in Massachusetts and Connecticut, but licenses
will have to be taken out in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. To get a Pennsylvania
license $2 must be paid for a certificate at the office of the prothonotary
of the county and then presented at the treasurer's office with $3 more, when a license
will be granted. Rhode Island requires no license.—ED.J

Winter Care and Use.
In experimenting with non-freezing compounds I found that chloride of calcium,
5 pounds to a gallon of water, eats holes in my tank. Polar ice machine oil
might do, but my pump will not circulate it, and it fries. Plain water, a slightly
warmed stable, an empty water line, and the engine left running or blanketed
with a piece of red flannel over the radiator keep me on the road every day.
A. H. R. GUILEY, M. D.

Who Makes Quadrants ?
Will you kindly let me know through the columns of your valuable paper where
I can purchase quadrants with small levers, such as are used for spark and throttle
control? C. SEFRIN.

[Manufacturers are now making their own quadrants. Supply dealers as a rule
do not keep them.—ED.]

Friday, October 2, 2009


It is quite evident from a census of the types of motors employed upon gasoline
cars at the Show that the double cylinder engine of the opposed type is extremely
popular. Its cost of construction has been reduced through improved methods of
manufacture to such a point that it is now offered as the motive power of runabout
cars at $750 or $850; it is still used upon several makes of full fledged touring cars
built by concerns of established and long standing reputation, and furthermore, constitutes
the power equipment of an intermediate class of vehicles called "light touring
cars" or "light tonneaus" which bids fair to become a very popular and useful type, selling
at a price between the runabouts and the high powered and most luxurious touring
vehicles, namely, at from $1,500 to $1,800.

It would seem that the opposed cylinder engine represents in the world of motors the
bourgoisie or middle class, ranking between the humble and proletarian single
cylinder engine and the high toned three or four cylinder motor of the de luxe vehicle.

Probably the double opposed type has been the most important element concerned in
the production of a reasonable low priced vehicle for the average buyer, which shall
be free from noticeable vibration and torque fluctuation. Hardly anyone will deny that
it is the steadiest running motor for the money and as such it is increasingly appreciated.

So great is its inherent superiority in steadiness of running over the twin type,
on account of the equal spacing of its power impulses and the fact that its vibration,
owing to its direction, is not exaggerated by the springs, that the popularity of the
twin type in front, as used in medium powered touring cars, appears to be somewhat
threatened, especially as the opposed motorwhen placed across the car can wear a bonnet
just as "becomingly" as the twin engine and thus answer the general demand for a
motor in front type of car. In fact, several manufacturers, in order to secure the symmetrical
power impulses of the opposed engine in the twin type, have made their
cranks with both throws on the same side of the shaft. This secures the desired end,
but as the reciprocating parts are all traveling in the same direction at the same time
the vibration from this source is as great as in a vertical single cylinder motor. The
heavy counterbalances required to minimize this defect probably weigh more than any
reduction of the flywheel weight which is made admissible on account of the greater
symmetry of the explosions.

The opposed cylinder engine is a characteristic American device, having been first
developed by one of our veteran automobile manufacturing concerns, which, by the way,
is still using it to the exclusion of all other types. It has been widely copied, and, on
account of its applicability to the engine in front type of construction, in all but high
powered cars, and the fact that when so used it is almost perfectly vibrationless, it is
likely to enjoy a brilliant future.

It has been remarked that the opposed motor is unknown in France, but it is hardly
to be believed that any one nation enjoys an absolute monopoly of engineering wisdom,
and it may be possible that there are some good things in the motor car business
which our clever friends across the water have in some manner missed.

Thursday, October 1, 2009

Richmond lamps

No. 43. QUAKER.


All kinds—for all uses.
Hand built—riveted.
Lamps made to satisfy the most exacting
automobile users.
We guarantee the Richmond Lamps throughout to possess greater
lighting power and finer wearing qualities than any other lamps.